Ecumenical Councils at a Glance (part 2)
451 - 4th Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon
Heroes: St. Leo (the Great) of Rome.
Decision: Condemned Monophysitism. After examination of the Tome of Leo affirmed it as "the faith of the Fathers." Affirmed completeness of the two natures of the Lord Jesus Christ: divinity and humanity (perfect God and perfect man).
Canons: Affirmed canons of previous three Ecumenical Councils. Reaffirmed New Rome (Constantinople) as second in honour (following Old Rome) of the patriarchates.
Statement: “one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only-begotten, recognised in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistence, not as parted or separated into two persons, but one and the same Son and only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ”
553 - 5th Ecumenical Council at Constantinople
Heretics: Theodore of Mopsuestia, Eutyches, and Origen
Heroes: Emperor (Saint) Justinian (the Great)
Decision: Condemned the person and writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, who had been Nestorius' teacher and declared the Logos to be a different God than the one called Christ and who taught the Lord Jesus Christ was troubled by desires of human flesh and passions of the human soul. Condemned Origen, Didymus, and Evagrius for teaching the pre-existence of souls, re-incarnation, the ultimate salvation of demons, heavenly bodies possessed souls, and other errors.
680 - 6th Ecumenical Council at Constantinople
Heretics: Monothelitism, representing Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, Peter, Pope Honorius, and Cyrus.
Heroes: St. Maximos the Confessor, St. Martin (Pope of Rome)
Decision: Condemned Monothelitism (a belief the Lord Jesus Christ had only one will and one energy). Affirmed the Lord Jesus Christ, though but one person, after His incarnation possessed two natural wills and two natural energies, just as He possessed two natures.
787 - 7th Ecumenical Council at Nicea
Heretics: Emperor Leo IV and Constantine V
Heroes: Empress Irene; St. John of Damascus; St. Germanus
Decision: Condemned Iconoclasm. Affirmed veneration (but not adoration, which was for God alone) of images.
Canons: Decreed those secretly keeping Jewish customs (e.g. keeping the Sabbath) but pretending to be Christians should live as Jews openly, but be excluded from the Church. Established monastic regulations.
Statement: “Whenever these representations are contemplated, they will cause those who look at them to commemorate and love their prototype. We define also they should be kissed and they are an object of veneration and honour [timitiki proskynisis], but not of real worship [latreia], which is reserved for Him Who is the subject of our faith and is proper for the Divine Nature. The veneration accorded to an icon is in effect transmitted to the prototype; he who venerates the icon, venerated in it the reality for which it stands.”
Did you recognize any of these heresies in today's world?