This is a wonderful passage this gives us another glimpse into the life of the early church. The Antiochian church had gathered together for worship and Paul and Barnabas were sent on a missionary journey.
Several men are mentioned in these first couple verses and are identified as prophets and teachers.
1. Simeon who was called Niger (possibly Simon the Cyrene who carried the cross of Christ). The term Niger means black and it may not have been a surname but a nickname describing him. Cyrene was a town in modern day Libya.
The Holy Apostle Lucius of the Seventy became bishop in Syrian Laodicia (a former chief city in Phrygia). The Apostle Paul mentions him in the Epistle to the Romans (Rom. 16: 21), among the other Christians whom he greets.
Manaen was courtier of King Herod Antipas as mentioned here and he died in Antioch.
2. “ministered” here is actually the Greek word leitourgia. Obviously where we get our word liturgy. As they served the liturgy the Holy Spirit spoke to them to separate out Barnabas and Saul to be sent as missionaries for the church. This looks like an ordination service and Chrysostom sees in this act as an ordination of Paul. As to evidence of ordination, from this passage onward Paul no longer go by Saul but Paul, and Chrysostom suggests that he took a new name upon being ordained. Christians from the beginning have often taken new names upon being baptized and almost always upon ordination including monastic orders.
4. Seleucia was just south of Anitoch and from there they were able to take a ship to the Island of Cyprus. Salamis is a city in Cyprus. And they began their preaching in the synagogues. This becomes typical of Paul's strategy, he goes to the synagogue first and usually attracts the God-fearers and several Jews, and he uses these people as the base of the Christian community.
John was their assistant. In other places he is referred to as John Mark, who is the Gospel writer Mark. Later on Mark causes a dispute between Paul and Barnabas. We also learn that Mark is Barnabas’ nephew.
13. Perga in Pamphylia: Perga would have been northwest of Cyprus on the Southern coast of Asia Minor in an area know as Pamphylia. John Mark leaves from here and this action will later cause a dispute with Paul.
14. Antioch Pisidia. This is not the Syrian Antioch but in the middle of Asia Minor. Again they go to a synagogue and after the Scripture reading they stand to preach.
15-41. Paul’s sermon is similar in nature to many of the other sermons seen in Acts. Paul gives brief history of Israel highlighting David showing that Jesus is the fulfillment of the Davidic line and the prophecies. He quotes from Ps. 88:19, 1 Kingdoms 13:14 in verse 22. Then in v. 23 Paul refers to the prophecy that the Messiah would come from the seed of David. (Ps. 88:36, 37, 2 Kingdoms 7:12-14).
Other passages from the OT are Ps. 2:7, Is. 55:3, Ps. 15:10, & Hab. 1:5.
43. As a result of the sermon, it was mainly the God-fearers who embraced the message of the Gospel.
45. Obviously the word had spread about Paul and Barnabas and a large crowd gathered together on the next Sabbath. Many in the Jewish community were unhappy with the gathering of the Gentiles into their place. Paul then quotes from Is. 49:6 that the Lord would use Israel to bring the Gentiles into salvation.
48. Paul and Barnabas were ultimately kicked out of town because of the disturbance they caused. Yet not before many Gentiles were converted. Chrysostom: “This is proof that their having received these Gentiles was agreeable to the mind of God. But ‘appointed,’ not in regard of necessity: ‘For whom He foreknew,’ says the apostles, ‘He also foreordained.’”
51. Iconium: due West of Antioch Pisidia
*25-32 is used as an epistle reading during feast of John the Baptist